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The Institute of Development Studies (IDS) is leading a new Foreign and Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO)-funded programme which will inform policy and programming on how to help poor and vulnerable people cope better with crises including recurrent shocks, climate crises, humanitarian crises, protracted conflict and forced displacement.
The new Better Assistance in Crises (BASIC) Research programme is led by IDS together with the University of Sussex and the Centre for International Development and Training (CIDT) at the University of Wolverhampton.
The programme is being managed by Rachel Sabates-Wheeler at IDS and Paul Harvey from Humanitarian Outcomes, alongside research directors, Jeremy Lind (IDS) and Rachel Slater from the Centre for International Development and Training.
Paul Harvey said: “BASIC research is about finding ways to help people through provision of more effective social assistance in places where needs are most desperate, but where getting aid to people is hardest. Research in places such as Yemen, Iraq and Mali will explore ways in which humanitarian aid, social protection systems and adaptations to the climate crisis can work together to help people cope better with crises. We’re really looking forward to working on this critical agenda with the FCDO.”
Over 80 million people now forcibly displaced around the world
The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) recently announced that it estimated 80 million people are now forcibly displaced around the world as a result of persecution, conflict, and human rights violations., which continued unabated despite Covid-19.
Harri Lee, Social Protection Adviser in the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office said:
“We know that poverty is increasing — driven by conflict, climate change and now Covid-19. Crises are increasingly protracted or recurrent and humanitarian needs are rising, whilst financing and delivery models are mainly short-term and reactive. Social protection systems and approaches can help address these constraints; however, they are underutilised and one of the reasons is a lack of evidence.”
FCDO are pleased to partner with the IDS-led consortium for BASIC Research. This work will strengthen the evidence on what works to effectively deliver social assistance in different crisis contexts, so that vulnerable people, in particular women, children and people with disabilities, can cope better with crises and meet their basic needs.”
BASIC Research will look at:
- Routine, effective, and efficient delivery (what works)
- Financing and value for money – how can financing for basic assistance in crises by sustained, more nationally led, better value for money and less reliant on humanitarian aid?
- Principled and inclusive – what prevents social assistance reaching all those who need it and meeting the specific needs of vulnerable groups? How can coverage be extended?
- Politics and the role of the state – how can states best be supported to expand coverage and include refugees and other excluded groups and how can transitions to more nationally led social assistance be supported?
- Risks, accountability and technology – how can the risks and benefits of new technologies best be managed and how can accountability be strengthened?
- Climate and resilience – how can social assistance in crises contribute to greater resilience to shocks (including climate shocks) and support climate adaptation?
- Transformation – how can social assistance in crises aim to be transformative and promotive as well as protective?
BASIC (Better Assistance in Crises) Research is an FCDO-funded research programme and will run from 2020 to 2024.
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Rachel Slater, CIDT’s in-house social protection expert, is leading a team to enhance evidence-based decision making, learning and accountability in World Food Programme (WFP) social protection work in the context of COVID-19 and other factors. This work is being undertaken with the WFP Regional Bureau and Country Offices in East Africa.
Forming a virtual Social Protection Learning Facility, the experts support eight Country Offices, combining real-time evaluation of WFP’s activities with technical assistance to staff. WFP teams are navigating difficult trade-offs as they seek to support governments to adapt social protection in the region.
The most effective and efficient way to scale up social protection is rarely clear cut and identifying and navigating trade-offs is common for any agency. The provision of technical support from the University of Wolverhampton and Institute of Development Studies (IDS) team helps staff make decisions by providing evidence from other countries about the options available and providing expert analysis and advice on alternative approaches.
The Facility operates and responds flexibly to requests that are shaped by a constantly evolving situation. The team is designed to be adaptable across three interlinked areas:
- Monitoring and accountability: Monitoring, assessing and reporting in real-time on social protection operations in the context of COVID-19;
- Technical support: Providing advice to Country Offices based on their collective experience and knowledge of social protection and country contexts;
- Documenting learning: Compiling and disseminating lessons, findings and experiences for future policy and programme design decision-making.
The process of scaling up existing social protection programmes and creating new ones in response to COVID-19 has been rapid and substantial. The World Bank reports that, from 20th March – 10th July, the number of countries with planned or ongoing social protection responses to COVID-19 increased from 48 to 200, with a combined 1,055 active or planned social protection measures.
Some key highlights from the Facility include:
- establishing virtual learning and exchange spaces that encourage cross-regional sharing and discussion on emerging ‘hot topics’. These interactive forums highlight emerging good practice and innovation in support of social protection programming design and delivery for COVID-19 response.
- modifying systems for targeting, verification and payment to ensure that social protection operations do not become a source of infection.
- adapting programme design features, such as asset creation and income generation activities, to be more effective in urban contexts.
- adjusting working practices and training activities to ensure social distancing and appropriateness.
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Since 2017 CIDT has been undertaking a longitudinal study into survival and drop-out of school in Zimbabwe. The baseline and midline and additional monitoring visits have been completed and the endline data collection was scheduled to take place during term two, May-June 2020.
Once the COVID-19 pandemic had become a global concern, restrictions in both the UK and Zimbabwe threatened to derail this final stage of the project. In Zimbabwe, despite few registered deaths at the time, the government had imposed a certain level of lockdown from early April and it was unknown whether or when the schools would open in May.
The study is tracking over 3000 students, interviewing the children, their teachers and care givers . The team were faced with the challenge of how to gather data from this quantity of people during a time of social distancing and facing the inability to travel internationally.
The team initially presented three different scenarios, timings and costings to UNICEF: a delayed start in term two; postponing to term three; or postponing completely until early 2021.
However, the Zimbabwe government is currently developing its National Development Plan for 2021-2025 and the Ministry of Education (the MoPSE) will also be developing an Education Sector Strategy Plan for 2021-2025; both to be completed by the end of the year. Since the ultimate goal of the study is to advocate for changes in Government policy, UNICEF and the Ministry were keen that a number of emerging findings and recommendations from the study should feed into these policy documents. It became clear that it was important for CIDT to complete and publish the final report by the end of October as originally scheduled.
As UNICEF said:
“We want the Longitudinal Study to be done, printed and disseminated so that we can use it as a lobbying tool… to inform sector plans.”
The tracking process had verified the telephone contact details of over 2000 learners and their primary care givers. Ideally all questionnaires, as well as qualitative interviews would happen face-to-face, but given the timing it was decided to conduct telephone interviews. Online surveys were considered but the team felt they would gain a greater number of responses by telephone.
Interviews for quantitative data collection with headteachers and caregivers began by telephone. With the need for privacy during calls, this method was not initially considered for student interviews. However, school opening was pushed back and schools are still not open in Zimbabwe. Therefore some telephone interviews have begun with learners, which proved to be very successful with students finding space and sharing devices with other students to enable them to participate.
In a usual fieldwork scenario, verification would take place via the Ministry visiting a random selection of schools. UNICEF was keen for this still to take place as it can strengthen future lobbying efforts. To replicate this the project team were able to provide details of those interviewed to the Ministry so that they could make random calls to verify the research.
Project Team Leader Mary Surridge notes,
“With the endline back on track, the past three months have highlighted the need to be highly creative and adaptive. The pandemic situation has continued to shift and change. Working in very close contact with UNICEF has helped to keep all parties up to speed, and promoted the understanding that we are swimming in unchartered waters whilst still working towards deadlines that had to be met, to align with wider national priorities.”
The endline report will focus on telling the individual stories of students, melding the quantitative and qualitative data collected to reveal the most important factors that lead to school survival or dropout. There will be a focus on the gendered aspects of survival and dropout, as well as the influence of the family and even the impact of COVID-19.
The results from this research could have an impact on various educational issues in Zimbabwe, such as entitlement to state funded education, school fees, behaviour management and discipline and resources for learners with disabilities.
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In this Alumni Spotlight we talk to Khin Khin Mra, who studied with us back in 2010, when she was a programme officer for ActionAid Myanmar. As a consultant on gender and governance, Khin Khin now works on national strategies to promote gender equality and social inclusion.
What did you study with CIDT?
I was awarded the Chevening Fellowship for studies in ‘Government Relations with NGOs and Civil Society’ at the University of Wolverhampton in the UK. The Chevening Fellowship Course took place from 11 January to 1 April 2010.
How did this course make an impact on you?
I got a chance to learn about social exculsion and how community engagement strategies worked in practice in the deprived neighbourhoods in the UK. This is the place where I really learnt to see things critically and understand how different perspectives work on social inclusion. These have become critical aspects of my work on inclusion in governance in Myanmar.
“I can’t believe that the relationship I built with CIDT ten years ago is still going well which makes me professionally resourceful and personally fulfilled connected to people I can rely on.”
Where are you now in your career?
I am currently working as a consulant on gender and governance. I worked as a National Consultant to the Department of Social Welfare, at the Ministry of Social Welfare Relief and Resettlement in Myanmar for 17 months, influencing Gender Strategy implementation and acting as a critical bridge between government, donors and civil society. I have worked with UNESCO and the Ministry of Education to ensure gender equality within reforms for pre-service teacher education and with DFID’s Centre for Good Governance programme.
I have also worked to ensure local governance policies and systems in conflict affected areas are more inclusive of women and other excluded social groups. At the same time, I contributed to evaluation projects in Myanmar for international donors such as UNFPA, UNTF, USAID and the European Union.
Years of experience with different agencies have enabled me to leverage the important interplay between international and national commitments, and research and practice as it relates to women’s rights, gender equality, local governance and development issues. This provides me with an excellent background to understand the links between the needs of communities and the legislative and policy frameworks. As one example, I contributed to work on the development and implementation of the government’s ‘National Strategic Plan on the Advancement of Women’.
You can read the following articles by Khin Khin online:
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Funded by the Jamaica Social Investment Fund, CIDT staff are working with the Bureau of Gender Affairs to conduct a review and revision of the National Policy for Gender Equality (NPGE) to ensure that the policy is current and meets the needs and concerns of all women, men, young women and young men and vulnerable groups.
In spite of the COVID-19 travel restrictions, through local partnerships, national and community networks, the consultants will conduct online surveys, consultations, focus group discussions and interviews, to ensure the voices of those most marginalised are included in the review.
The NPGE was approved in 2011, with a primary goal to ensure the principle of equality between women and men. The NPGE outlines Jamaica’s commitment to addressing the long-term systemic forms of discrimination both direct and indirect against women in the public and private spheres, identifying and overcoming the limitations to the empowerment of women and men and ultimately creating a society that values gender equality. The objectives of the NPGE are to:
- To reduce all forms of gendered discrimination and promote greater gender equality and social justice.
- To strengthen institutional mechanisms and develop the skills and tools required to mainstream gender in cultural, social, economic, and political institutions, structures, and systems.
- To promote sustainable behaviour change and improve organizational effectiveness and the capacity of public sector entities to develop, implement and monitor gender responsive plans, projects, programmes, and policies.
CIDT consultants, Mary Surridge, Rufsana Begum and national consultant Judith Wedderburn, have been contracted to undertake a comprehensive evaluation, review and revision of the NPGE.
The review process explores:
- The current situation in relation to gender
- The gender-related changes in the past 10 years.
- The role of the NPGE in contributing to the change.
- What a revised policy should include
Moreover, the current situation provides a critical opportunity for the consultants to test the robustness of the mechanisms for gender equality incorporated in the NPGE, in light of COVID 19, concerning the differential impacts on women and men, and the restrictions such as curfews and lockdown. Preliminary analysis by donors and NGOs highlight that COVID 19 is having significant detrimental impacts on the lives of women and those of their families, deepening pre-existing inequalities, exposing vulnerabilities in the social protection mechanisms in both developing and developed countries.
CIDT supports rethink of capacity building for linking humanitarian and social protection programmesContinue Reading
Rachel Slater has been working with Humanitarian Outcomes and staff at the IDS Centre for Social Protection to produce a high level briefing paper on linking humanitarian cash and voucher assistance with social protection systems for the Cash Learning Partnership.
In a recent webinar and blog the team explore why, although ensuring that humanitarian actors better link the cash transfers they deliver in emergencies to national social protection systems is widely accepted as a good idea, in practice it remains so difficult.
On the capacity strengthening side they argue that the current focus on technical capacity and hard skills (for example knowing how to target beneficiaries efficiently and how to set benefit levels) needs to be expanded to include functional capacity and soft skills (such as coordination or navigating the internal politics of governments and other organisations.
Webinar: Linking Social Protection and humanitarian CVA – what do we really know and where to start?
This webinar took place on 21 May 2020. You can watch the full recording below.
Image credit: DFID/Vicki Francis. Crown Copyright/Open Government License.
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As CAMFED‘s institutional External Evaluator, CIDT’s Rachel Roland, Richard Nyirenda and Dani Baur, working with associates Patt Flett and Mariana Van Graan, have carried out midline evaluations for two girls’ education projects:
- The Virtuous Cycle of Girls’ Education, which is being run in rural districts of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe
- Girls Learn, Achieve and Succeed, which is running in Tanzania (urban and peri-urban areas).
The evaluations are part of a 4-year study tracking the education of marginalised girls in CAMFED-supported schools in terms of enrolment, attendance, retention and achievement, as well as onward study and income generation or employment.
In both projects CIDT led the research methodology, design, fieldwork, analysis and reporting. During the midline study, a statistically robust quantitative study was undertaken that included a test for English and Maths that was marked by national exam boards and surveys with beneficiary children, parents and caregivers and teaching staff. At the same time an extensive qualitative research programme interviewed and held focus group discussions with beneficiary girls, teachers, parents, parents support groups, government officials and CAMFED national office staff. The qualitative study covered 8-10 secondary schools in selected districts across each country and setting.
In Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, only a minority of girls in the country have the opportunity to go to a secondary school. If they get a school place, they face problems of getting to and from school, both in terms of distance, they must walk, as well as problems with sexual harassment on their ways to and from school. Harassment often increases as girls get older.
At school, key barriers to education are lack of sufficient desks, chairs, books and other educational learning equipment, as well as teaching methods that do not help girls to participate and learn, and the lack of specialist teachers in some subjects. In addition girls in particular suffer from lack of access to sufficient water and sanitation. Very often girls at school can’t afford lunch and their families can only afford one or two meals a day. CAMFED’s projects support girls to stay in school with a range of grants, equipment, support to learning and teaching and a mentoring programme for girls in school and school leavers, pioneered by their alumnus organisation. Please see the CAMFED Model for more information.
In this work CIDT collaborated with Development Data, a national consultancy firm based in Zimbabwe and Zambia and UK organisation Women and Girls Inclusive. CIDT is honoured to have had the opportunity to contribute towards ensuring quality girls’ education through leading these evaluations.
The midline reports have been signed off by the Fund Manager, PWC. CAMFED’s projects are part of the global Girls’ Education Challenge programme funded by the UK government and implemented in 18 countries. This global programme aims to improve the learning opportunities and outcomes of over one million of the world’s most marginalised girls. In Africa 33.3 million girls of primary and lower secondary school age are out of education.
 Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS, 2018). This number has risen from 28 million (UIS, 2015).
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CIDT was invited to showcase its projects and impact in Africa to the UK’s Ambassador for Africa, Emma Wade-Smith OBE, during a Trade Commission visit organised by the Department for International Trade at Derby University on 5th March 2020.
Focused on Working in Partnership, the event was hosted by the Midlands Enterprise University of which the University of Wolverhampton is a member. A large proportion of CIDT’s work in recent years has focused on strengthening capacity of projects, programming and organisations in over 25 sub-Saharan African countries.
We are proud to support multi-lateral agencies engaged in regional development including the African Union, UNIDO, UNICEF, DFID and the World Bank. CIDT has implemented three multi-million European Union funded grants in Central Africa and delivered longitudinal studies in Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Zambia.
Click the icons on the map below to explore our work, for example, supporting green growth in Rwanda, infrastructure in Somaliland, education in Zambia or energy in Nigeria.
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CIDT’s Richard Nyirenda has completed two weeks of field work in Zimbabwe; conducting data collection as part of a midline qualitative study of a girls’ education project. The project is implemented by CAMFED (Campaign for Female Education) and operates in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Tanzania. CAMFED’s project is part of the global Girls’ Education Challenge programme funded by the UK government and implemented in more than 17 countries. This global programme aims to improve the learning opportunities and outcomes of over one million of the world’s most marginalised girls.
CIDT is contracted as the external evaluator of the project. The midline evaluation is being undertaken as part of a 4-year study tracking the education of marginalised girls in Camfed-supported schools in terms of enrolment, attendance, retention and achievement. Concurrently, other CIDT members of staff, Rachel Roland (Project Manager and Team Leader), Dani Baur and associates, Patt Flett, Mariana Van Graan and Busisiwe Moyo have been conducting similar fieldwork in Zambia and Tanzania.
This work represents a small but significant part of the CIDT commitment to challenging inequality and removing barriers to meaningful participation and improving the quality of education.
During the midline study, interview and focus group discussions were held with beneficiary girls, teachers, parents, parents support groups, government officials and CAMFED national office staff. The qualitative study covered 8-10 secondary schools in selected districts across the country. The qualitative study was complemented by a quantitative study that was also undertaken at the same time.
The final report for the Midline Evaluation will be released later this year.
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Over twenty African women participated in an action-oriented initiative seeking to enhance their leadership to bring transformative change focusing on peace, security and development in the continent, in line with Africa Agenda 2063.
The Centre for International Development and Training has successfully delivered a ‘Women in Leadership’ training workshop for 22 mid- to- senior level female staff from across the African Union Commission. The training took place from 23-31 March in Arusha, Tanzania. It was co-facilitated by CIDT’s gender experts Mary Surridge, and Rufsana Begum. This is the third women in leadership training since March 2018 and the suite of training has led to significant impact and lasting change; by multiplying the voices of African women leaders and enhancing their participation and leadership capacity in key decision-making processes.
Women leaders face structural and cultural barriers, reflected in the AUC staffing ratio of 65% men and 35% women, with the gender ratio becoming increasingly unequal as seniority increases. The workshop was designed to identify the unique challenges women face in leadership positions and to create enabling conditions to address them. Through peer learning, experience sharing and cross-generational dialogues, the workshop hoped to:
- Lay the foundation to grow a cadre of strong women leaders within the organisation; and
- Identify and nurture those with highest potential.
Participants engaged in numerous practical activities, simulations and role plays, participant presentations, TED talk simulations, reflective journal writing and more.
Some of the elements covered in the workshop include:
- Communication Skills
- Body language for power and influence
- Emotional Intelligence
By catalysing and harnessing the power of women leaders, the AUC can realise the true potential of some of its best people.
3C’s – Communication, Connections and Community….
By the end of the workshop: women had strengthened their capacity in communication, developed strong connectionsand built a communityof strong female leaders. Two emerging concepts (currently under discussion) are:
- “She-roes” a social media/WhatsApp platform for the participants to share experiences and lessons;
- ‘She-Speaks’ a development initiative that aims to harness videos produced by African Women at the AU on a website. This aims to counterbalance dominant narratives and western style/experience-based leadership videos. It will show case the challenges African Women face, their lessons and their stories to better reflect diversity and promote more inclusivity leadership videos.
We hope that She-Roes and She-Speaks will provide a platform to share inspirational stories from African women for African Women.
Some of the feedback from the participants included:
- Very engaging and informative
- Connection with other strong ladies
- Very practical sessions
- The Ted Talk has built my skills for speaking in public
- Stand on both feet to respect women’s leadership and self confidence
Some of the most notable elements participants gained from the workshop were:
- Negotiating skills and promoting myself
- To be assertive visible, to have a strategic goal
- Emotional intelligence and speaking up in meetings
- Dealing with difficult colleagues and bosses
- Have self-worth
- Our work
Get in touch
Centre for International Development and Training, University of Wolverhampton, Faculty of Social Sciences,
Telford Innovation Campus, Shifnal Road, Priorslee, Telford TF2 9NT, United Kingdom